There is a new development task created now (COOL-8315), that will support an additional rest call query parameter. This parameter will be used to control the extraction behaviour, if content is replaced.
I assume, but don't now for sure, that the product version 4.8 - maybe 4.7 - will support this.
At the moment there is no extra call or parameter you can use. Except doing it manually with a combination of DmsService.getItemContentExtractionData and DmsService.updateIndexData.